Instead of washing its hands of the issue with the argument that safety is obligation of state governments, the Lula and Dilma governments opted for shared management and the division of responsibility between the federal, state and municipalities governments in this important area. In the past 12 years, the federal government has been a constant partner of state governments both in structuring actions, as in Rio de Janeiro and Alagoas, as well as during times of emergency, as happened in Bahia, São Paulo, Goiás, Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte. In addition to funding for structural works in neighborhoods that received UPPs and investments in the states with the highest rates of violence, state governments have come to rely, during critical situations, with the help of an elite federal police unit, the National Public Security Force .
The best men and women from the state police organizations as well as the Federal Police form the National Public Security Force. By the beginning of 2014, more than 10,000 police had received specialized training in urban combat, shooting techniques, street policing and human rights. These agents only are used when a state government authorizes it or requests federal intervention.
Launched in 2007, the National Public Security and Citizenship Program (Pronasci) is the broadest public policy ever established to face the crime from the perspective of prevention. Pronasci includes activities such as training of community leaders, human rights education for prosecutors and judges, as well as investments in the professional development of police. In five years, from 2008 to 2012, Pronasci invested more than R$ 6.7 billion in metropolitan areas.
With the creation of the Juventude Viva (Living Youth) program, the Federal Government has committed more than R$ 600 million for programs in health, culture, education, justice, income generation and professional training of civil servants. The program began in Alagoas, one of the states with the highest rates of violence and most homicide victims among black people. Then, between 2013 and 2014, it reached the Paraíba, the Federal District, the city of São Paulo and Bahia. Voluntarily, 34 more municipalities in 13 states sought out the Secretariat for the Promotion of Racial Equality and were incorporated into the program.
What are the results of these prevention actions in the states?
In Alagoas, thanks to the actions of the Living Youth program, added to the Safe Brazil program — which included the purchase of equipment, physical structuring of the police and professional training for state police — there was a reduction of 13% in homicides in the state, and in the capital the decline in killings reached 26.5%.
How has the Federal Government supported the UPPs?
The installation of the UPPs took place simultaneously and involved an investment of more than R$ 12 billion in of social and urban infrastructure projects through the Accelerated Growth Program (PAC) in the poorest communities of Rio de Janeiro. To this amount, in June 2013, the Dilma government added an additional R$ 1.8 billion in infrastructure for the Rocinha, Jacarezinho and Lins Complex communities.